History of Nicosia Starting from ancient times, throughout history; Nicosia was a city where feudal lords, dukes, kings, lords, nobles, barons, knights, governor pashas and Beylerbeyi ruled... When you look at the map, Nicosia is located almost in the middle of Cyprus. This city, which we call "Nicosia" and the Greek Cypriots call "Lefkosia", is built on a flat area and bears the traces of many civilizations, cultures and religions in its historical texture. Its oldest known name is "Lydra"... In its soil; There are ruins from the Bronze period and the Roman period… Nicosia has served as the "capital" of almost all the states that ruled Cyprus since the Byzantine period. In the city; Historical buildings especially from the periods of the Lusignan Kingdom (192-1489), the Venetians (1489-1570), the 370-year-long Ottoman rule (1571-1878) and the British colonial administration (1878-1960) attract attention. When Nicosia, which was a Christian city until the 16th century, was conquered by the Ottomans, Islamic architecture began to be visible in the city. In the 1920s, Armenians coming from Anatolia settled in this neighborhood. The Armenian Church (Notre Dame de Tire) located here was restored and joined the cultural heritage of the city. During the Lusignan Kingdom, which lasted nearly 300 years, Nicosia was governed with the medieval Feudal City concept and remained the administrative capital of the island. During this period, the Lusignans also built walls around the city. King Henry I built the first walls with two towers in 1211, Peter I built a third tower, and Henry II built the first walls. Henry had the city completely surrounded by walls. Used as the main church during the Lusignan period, St. Sophia Cathedral was converted into a mosque by the Ottomans and was named "Selimiye Mosque-Hagia Sophia". This magnificent historical building; It has served as a place of worship for Christians and then for Muslims since 1326. Derviş Pasha Mansion, Arabahmet Mosque, Haydarpaşa Mosque and Ayluka Church, which is now used for cultural purposes, are also noteworthy structures in the Walled City. Samabahçe houses are Nicosia's first mass housing attempt... They were restored with EU funds in 2004 and added to the "authentic" values of Nicosia. Outside the walls; There are regions such as Köşklüçiftlik, Kumsal, Dereboyu, Taşkınköy, Göçmenköy, Ortaköy, Kermiya, Yenişehir, K. Kaymaklı. Until the early 1950s, the city of Nicosia had a mixed character in terms of demographics. There were fewer Turks compared to Greeks in regions such as Tahtakale, Ömerge, Strovolos, K. Kaymaklı, and Entertainment. A considerable number of Greeks lived in neighborhoods such as Ayluka, Arabahmet and Yenicami. In the Arabahmet region, Armenians were in majority. When ethnic conflicts began between the two c ommunities; The British colonial administration placed wire fences between Turkish and Greek neighborhoods for the first time in 1956. Thus, the Greek tradesmen who remained on the Turkish side fled to the southern part of the city, and the Turks who remained in the south fled to the north. In 1958, ethnic conflicts in the city reached their peak. Hundreds of people were killed in the streets. Turks in neighborhoods such as Aykasiyano and Tahtakala fled to the north. In 1958, British authorities divided the city into Turkish and Greek sides with wire fences. The created border was called the "Mason-Dixon Line", inspired by the USA. In 1963, the city was divided into two by the "Green line". During this period, Armenians living in the Arabahmet region left their homes and moved to the south. City; It was divided into two areas with barricades, sandbags, barrels and positions. As a result of the military operation in 1974; New areas in Kızılbaş, Kaymaklı and Kermiya joined the Turkish part of Nicosia. Today, the city of Nicosia still maintains its two-zonal character. There is an area under UN control in between. However, it is possible to travel between the Greek side and the Turkish side through three crossing points. People, vehicles and products can pass through these points in a controlled and authorized manner. Lidra Palace gate was opened for the first time between the Turkish and Greek sides of the capital on April 23, 2003. Following this, Metehan was opened on May 10, 2003, and Lokmacı was opened on April 3, 2008. Nicosia Walls, one of the most perfect examples of military architecture, are 5 kilometers long and consist of 11 bastions and 3 monumental gates. During the Lusignan period, the city can be examined in two parts: inside the walls and outside the walls. The walls, which still exist in Nicosia and add great beauty to the city, were built by the Venetians. Nicosia was turned into a circular city with walls containing 11 bastions. The inner city section of Nicosia was entered through three gates: Kyrenia gate, Paphos gate, Famagusta gate... Bandabuliya, where city people meet their vegetables, fruits, meat and all kinds of needs, and the inns where village buses used to park are also noteworthy buildings. The Walled City is a cultural treasure in terms of historical structures. It is possible to see traces of several civilizations in many buildings that still exist today... Among the most striking structures within the walls; There is the Büyük Han and the Selimiye Mosqu